A report has confirmed the involvement of Croatia, Greece and Romania in hundreds of illegal pushback operations since early 2020.
The Amsterdam-based investigative news organisation Lighthouse Reports has issued the report.
According to the findings, the three countries were involved in a “violent campaign” to prevent refugees from crossing their borders.
The report came as rights groups raised serious concerns over the violations carried out against refugees, including children.
The investigation by Lighthouse Reports took place over eight months, in collaboration with European media partners including the German news magazine Der Spiegel and French newspaper Libération.
Lighthouse Reports further documented 11 pushbacks in Croatia, the newest EU member state, between May and September this year at four locations along the country’s border with Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Over the past month, five migrants died at the border between Poland and Belarus.
UNHCR, the UN refugee agency, has earlier urged Poland to provide medical care and legal support to migrants at its border.
Along with rights groups, the agency also pressed the Polish authorities to shelter those refugees.
This appeal comes a day after Warsaw said it would build a fence to stop migrants flowing into the country.
Poland, Lithuania and Latvia have reported a spike in migrants from Afghanistan and Iraq.
The EU says Belarus’ President Alexander Lukashenko is waging a “hybrid” war on migrants to pressure the bloc.